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Kosmos, also spelled Cosmos, any of a series of uncrewed Soviet and then Russian satellites launched from the early 1960s to the present day. As of 2020 there were 2,544 satellites in the series. The first was launched on March 16, 1962. Kosmos satellites were used for a wide variety of purposes, including scientific research, navigation, and military reconnaissance. In the Soviet years, failures of probes in other programs were given a Kosmos number. Kosmos 26 and 49 (both launched in 1964), for example, were equipped to measure Earth’s magnetic field. Others were employed to study certain technical aspects of spaceflight as well as physical phenomena in Earth’s upper atmosphere and in deep space. A number of them—such as Kosmos 597, 600, and 602—were apparently used to collect intelligence on the Yom Kippur War (the fourth Arab-Israeli war) in October 1973. Some Kosmos spacecraft had the ability to intercept satellites launched by other nations. Other Kosmos satellites have proved much more notable for how their missions ended. Kosmos 954, a Soviet navy satellite powered by a nuclear reactor, crashed in the Northwest Territories of Canada on January 24, 1978, scattering radioactive debris. The first collision that destroyed an operational satellite happened on February 10, 2009, when Kosmos 2251, an inactive Russian military communications satellite, collided with Iridium 33, a communications satellite owned by the American company Motorola, about 760 km (470 miles) above northern Siberia, shattering both satellites.
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