As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded in the United States and health experts have collected increasing amounts of data, it has become apparent that persons of color are being affected disproportionately more than whites. Hospitalization rates from COVID-19 are especially high among non-Hispanic American Indians, non-Hispanic blacks, and Alaska Native persons. Hispanics and Latinos are not far behind. On the whole, COVID-19 hospitalization rates among these groups are four to five times higher than they are among non-Hispanic whites.
In the United States, significant health disparities exist between racial minority populations and whites. These disparities include differences in the incidence and prevalence of disease and differences in mortality from disease. African Americans, for example, experience disproportionately high rates of chronic illness and premature death. Hispanics, meanwhile, have the highest uninsured rates of any racial group in the United States, and they experience increased rates of chronic conditions, such as obesity. Such health disparities have long existed in the United States, so it is not surprising that they would surface in a pandemic.
In the COVID-19 pandemic, across the United States, cases and deaths are at least two times higher among African Americans than among non-Hispanic whites. An analysis by NPR found that in at least 21 states, African Americans were dying from COVID-19 at rates 50 percent greater than would be expected on the basis of the African American population in those states. A study of racial disparities in the impact of COVID-19 in the United States found that counties with a large proportion of blacks have been heavily affected. In Dougherty County, Georgia, which is almost 70 percent African American, 81 percent of COVID-19 deaths were African American. In Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, African Americans make up 26 percent of the population yet accounted for nearly three-quarters of COVID-19 deaths.
Hispanics and Latinos also are more heavily burdened by COVID-19 than non-Hispanic whites. In just about every U.S. state, these groups have experienced disproportionately high rates of COVID-19 infection. In New Jersey in late June 2020, data showed that, while Hispanics make up not quite one-fifth of the population, they accounted for about 30 percent of COVID-19 cases. Meanwhile, in Washington state, 44 percent of COVID-19 cases were among Hispanic persons, yet Hispanics constitute just 13 percent of that state’s total population.
There are various reasons that African Americans, Hispanics, and Latinos are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection. These include inequities in work, health, and living and social conditions. These inequities are not new. They have affected generations of people in communities of color, and they frequently are exposed in times of crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. African American, Hispanic, and Latino populations are also often affected by lack of education, lack of physical activity, and alcohol consumption and tobacco use. These risk factors for disease are not unique to populations of color. What is unique is the lack of access to medical services experienced by African Americans, Hispanics, and Latinos. Immigrants especially—regardless of educational level—suffer from unfamiliarity with the complex U.S. health care system. This leaves even healthy individuals of color vulnerable to the worst effects of disease—namely, severe illness and death, exactly the effects emerging in the COVID-19 data.
Social life and living conditions—particularly for Hispanic or Latino families and immigrants, who frequently live in multigenerational households—likely are considerable factors behind increased COVID-19 infection in these populations. But someone needs to become infected in the first place, and that person is most likely to be the one with an income. There is significant overrepresentation of persons of color in jobs deemed essential, and low income and poverty may be driving these individuals to work in order to support others in their households, even if it means increasing the likelihood of exposing those others to COVID-19.